Thyroid cancer starts from the thyroid gland. It affects most females from the ratio of three to one and can occur in all ages. People who have received radiation therapy to the neck are at a higher risk, the younger they are, the riskier. There are four types of thyroid cancer, which are: Papillary and/or Mixed papillary, Follicular and/or Hurthle cell, Medullary and Anaplastic.
Anaplastic carcinoma is the most dangerous form of thyroid cancer. It is rare because it is not easily detected, does not respond to radioiodine therapy and spreads quickly. Follicular and/or Hurthle cell carcinoma happens for about 10% of thyroid cancer cases and is more likely to relapse. Medullary carcinoma is the cancer of non-thyroid cells in the thyroid gland. This form of thyroid cancer tends to occur as genetic mutations in families. Since this carcinoma affects non-thyroid cells, its treatments are different than other forms of thyroid cancer. Papillary carcinoma is the most common type and usually affects women of child-bearing age but is the least dangerous type of thyroid cancer. The early symptoms of thyroid cancer includes coughing, difficulty swallowing, enlargement of the thyroid gland, hoarseness of voice, neck swelling.
Thyroid cancers are unique among other cancers because the cells themselves are unique among all cells in the human body. They are the only cells that are able to absorb iodine. Hence, most thyroid cancer cells have the ability to absorb iodine. It’s a good chemotheraphical strategy. Thyroid cancer patients are given radioactive iodine after their cancer is removed, so if there were anymore cancer cells left, they would absorb the radioactive iodine and be killed. The good thing is, the radioactive iodine will not harm other normal cells.
The symptoms of thyroid cancer are trouble in swallowing, throat or neck pain, lump or thyroid nodule that can be felt in the neck, swollen lymph nodes, and cough and vocal changes, also known as hoarseness. Growth of tumour, which is extra mass that are not used for the human body and it is grew on the thyroid gland mostly known as nodules. Thyroid nodules can be benign or malignant. The benign nodules are not cancer cells and it does not spread to the other parts of the body. More than 90% of thyroid nodules are benign nodules. For the malignant nodules, it is considered as cancer. It is more serious and can be life threatening. Cancer cells can invade the other tissue or parts of human body and break away from a malignant nodule and enter to the bloodstream. This is the process of spreading of cancer cells from the original cancer (primary tumour) to form new tumours in other organs and it is known as metastasis